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Alexander von Humboldt: „Baron Humboldt“, in: ders., Sämtliche Schriften digital, herausgegeben von Oliver Lubrich und Thomas Nehrlich, Universität Bern 2021. URL: <> [abgerufen am 02.12.2023].

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Titel Baron Humboldt
Jahr 1804
Ort Dover, New Hampshire
in: The Sun, Dover Gazette, and County Advertiser 10:18 (10. November 1804), S. [1–2].
Sprache Englisch
Typografischer Befund Antiqua (mit lang-s); Spaltensatz; Auszeichnung: Kursivierung; Fußnoten mit Asterisken.
Textnummer Druckausgabe: II.23
Dateiname: 1804-Baron_Humboldt-15-neu
Seitenanzahl: 2
Spaltenanzahl: 6
Zeichenanzahl: 23675

Weitere Fassungen
Baron Humboldt (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1804, Englisch)
Notice d’un voyage aux tropiques, exécuté par MM. Humboldt et Bonpland, en 1799, 1800, 1801, 1802, 1803 et 1804. Par J.-C. Delamétherie (Paris, 1804, Französisch)
Baron Humboldt (New York City, New York, 1804, Englisch)
Baron Humboldt (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1804, Englisch)
Baron Humboldt (New York City, New York, 1804, Englisch)
Baron Humboldt (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1804, Englisch)
Baron Humboldt (Charleston, South Carolina, 1804, Englisch)
Baron Humboldt (Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, 1804, Englisch)
Baron Humboldt (Washington, District of Columbia, 1804, Englisch)
Travels of Baron Humboldt (Kingston, New York, 1804, Englisch)
Baron Humboldt (Washington, District of Columbia, 1804, Englisch)
Baron Humboldt (Amherst, New Hampshire, 1804, Englisch)
Baron Humboldt (Richmond, Virginia, 1804, Englisch)
Baron Humboldt (New Bedford, Massachusetts, 1804, Englisch)
Baron Humboldt (Dover, New Hampshire, 1804, Englisch)
Auszug aus Delametheriés vorläufiger Nachricht von der durch die Herren v. Humboldt und Bonpland in den Jahren 1799, 1800, 1801, 1802, 1803 und 1804 nach den Wendekreisen unternommenen Reise (Wien, 1804, Deutsch)
Reise der Herren von Humboldt und Bonpland nach den Wendekreisen In den Jahren 1799 bis 1804. Eine gedrängte Uebersicht des Auszugs ihrer Memoiren v. J. C. Delametherie. Nach dem Französischen übertragen von Schirges Dr. (Hannover, 1805, Deutsch)
J. C. Delametherie’s vorläufige Nachricht von der durch die Herren v. Humboldt und Bonpland in den Jahren 1799, 1800, 1801, 1802, 1803 und 1804 nach den Wendekreisen unternommenen Reise (Weimar, 1805, Deutsch)
Short Account of the Travels between the Tropics, by Messrs. Humboldt and Bonpland, in 1799, 1800, 1801, 1802, 1803, and 1804. By J. C. Delametherie (London, 1805, Englisch)
J. C. Delametherie’s vorläufige Nachricht von der durch die Herren von Humboldt und Bonpland in den Jahren 1799, 1800, 1801, 1802, 1803 und 1804 nach den Wendekreisen unternommenen Reise (Salzburg, 1805, Deutsch)
Account of the Travels between the Tropics of Messrs. Humboldt and Bonpland, in 1799, 1800, 1801, 1802, 1803, and 1804. By J. C. Delamétherie (London, 1805, Englisch)
Travels in South America (Edinburgh, 1805, Englisch)
Voyage de Humboldt et Bonpland en Amérique, tiré du magasin littéraire de Philadelphie, publié en juillet 1804 (Paris, 1807, Französisch)
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From the “Literary Magazine, and Ame-rican Regiſter.”


The following abſtract of the AmericanTravels of the celebrated Baron Humboldt and his companion Bonpland, has been drawnup from notes which the former has kindlyfurniſhed, and will ſupercede the many veryincorrect accounts hitherto publiſhed relativeto this intereſting object. BARON HUMBOLDT, having trav-elled from the year 1790, as a naturaliſt,through Germany, Poland, France, Swit-zerland, and through parts of England,Italy, Hungary, and Spain, came to Parisin 1798, when he received an invitation,from the directors of the national muſeum,to accompany captain Baudin in his voyageround the world.—Citizen Alexander AimeGoujon Bonpland, a native of Rochelle, andbrought up in the Paris muſeum, was alſoto have accompanied them; when on thepoint of departing the whole plan was ſuſ-pended until a more favorable opportuni-ty, owing to the recommencement of thewar with Auſtria, and to the conſequentwant of funds. Mr. Humboldt, who, from 1792 hadconceived the plan of travelling throughIndia at his own expenſe, with a view ofadding to the knowledge of the ſciencesconnected with natural hiſtory, then re-ſolved to follow the learned men, who hadgone on the expedition to Egypt.—Hisplan was to go to Algiers in the Swediſhfrigate which carried the Conſul Skolde-brandt, to follow the caravan which goesfrom Algiers to Mecca, going through Egypt to Arabia, and thence by the Per-ſian gulph to the Engliſh Eaſt-India eſtab-liſhments. The war which unexpectedlybroke out in October 1798, between Franceand the Barbary powers, and the troublesin the Eaſt prevented Mr. Humboldt fromembarking at Marſeilles, where he hadbeen fruitleſsly two months waiting to pro-ceed. Impatient at this delay, and con-tinuing firm in his determination to go to Egypt, he went to Spain, hoping to paſsmore readily under the Spaniſh flag fromCarthagena to Algiers and Tunis. Hetook with him the large collection of phi-loſophical, chemical, and aſtronomical in-ſtruments, which he had purchaſed in En-gland and France. From a happy concurrence of circum-ſtances, he obtained, in February, 1799,from the court of Madrid, a permiſſion toviſit the Spaniſh colonies of the two Ame-ricas, a permiſſion which was granted witha liberality and frankneſs, which was hon-orable to the government and to a philo-ſophic age. After a reſidence of ſomemonths at the Spaniſh court, during whichtime the king ſhowed a ſtrong perſonal in-tereſt in the plan. Mr. Humboldt, inJune, 1799, left Europe, accompanied byMr. Bonpland, who, to a profound know-ledge in botany and zoology, added an in-defatigable zeal. It is with this friend thatMr. Humboldt has accompliſhed, at hisown expenſe, his travels in the two hemiſ-pheres, by land and ſea, probably the moſtextenſive which any individual has everundertaken. Theſe two travellers left Corunna in theSpaniſh ſhip Pizarro, for the Canary I-ſlands, where they aſcended to the craterof the Peak of Teyde, and made experi-ments on the analyſis of the air. In Julythey arrived at the port of Cumana, in South America. In 1799, 1800 they vi-ſited the coaſt of Paria, the miſſions of theChaymas Indians, the provinces of NewAndaluſia (a country which had been rentby the moſt dreadful earthquakes, the hot-teſt, and yet the moſt healthy in the world)of New Barcelona, of Venezuela, and Spa-niſh Guayana.—In January, 1800, theyleft Caraccas to viſit the beautiful valliesof Aragua, where the great lake of Valen-cia recalls to the mind the views of thelake of Geneva, embelliſhed by the majeſ-ty of the vegetation of the tropics. From |Spaltenumbruch| Porto Cabello they croſſed to the ſouth,the immenſe plains of Calabozo, of Apure,and of the Oronoco, alſo Los Llanos, adeſert ſimilar to thoſe of Africa, where inthe ſhade (by the reverberation of heat)the thermometer of Reaumur roſe to 35and 37 (111 to 115 F.) degrees. Thelevel of the country for 2000 ſquareleagues does not differ 5 inches. The ſandevery where repreſents the horizon of theſea, without vegetation; and its dry bo-ſom hides the crocodiles, and the torpidboa, (a ſpecies of ſerpent.) The travel-ling here, as in all Spaniſh America, ex-cept Mexico, is performed on horſeback.They paſſed whole days without ſeeing apalm-tree, or the veſtige of a human dwel-ling. At St. Fernando de Epure, in theprovinces of Varinas, Meſſrs. Humboldt and Bonpland began that fatiguing navi-gation of nearly 1000 marine leagues exe-cuted in canoes, making a chart of thecountry by the aſſiſtance of chronometers,the ſatellites of Jupiter, and the lunar diſ-tances. They deſcended the river Apure,which empties itſelf into the Oronoco, in7 degrees of latitude. They aſcended thelaſt river (paſſing the celebrated cataractsof Maypuro and Atures) to the mouth ofthe Guaviare. From hence they aſcendedthe ſmall rivers of Tabapa, Juamini,and Temi. From the miſſion of Saritathey croſſed by land to the ſources of thefamous Rio Negro, which Condamine ſaw,where it joins the Amazon, and which hecalls a ſea of freſh water. About 30 In-dians carried the canoes through woods ofMami, Lecythis, and Laurus Cinamomoi-des, to the cano (or creek) of Pimichin....It was by this ſmall ſtream that the travel-lers entered the Rio Negro, or Black Riv-er, which they deſcended to St. Carlos,which has been erroneouſly ſuppoſed tobe placed under the equator, or juſt at thefrontiers of Great Para, in the governmentof Braſil. A canal from Temi to Pimi-chin, which from the level nature of the ground is very practicable, would preſenta fine internal communication between thePara and the province of Carracas, a com-munication infinitely ſhorter than that ofCaſſiquiare.—From the fortreſs of St.Carlos on the Rio Negro, Mr. H. wentnorth up that river and the Caſſiquiare tothe Oronoco, and on this river to the vol-cano Daida, or the miſſion of the Eſmer-alda, near the ſources of the Oronoco:the Indians Guaicas (a race of men almoſtpigmies, very white and very warlike) ren-der fruitleſs any attempts to reach theſources themſelves. From the Eſmeralda, Meſſrs. H. andB. went down the Oronoco, when the wa-ters roſe, towards its mouth at St. Thomasde la Guayana, or the Angoſtura. It wasduring this long navigation that they werein a continued ſtate of ſuffering, fromwant of nouriſhment and ſhelter, from thenight rains, from living in the woods, fromthe muſquetoes, and an infinite variety ofſtinging inſects, and from the impoſſibilityof bathing, owing to the fierceneſs of thecrocodile and the little carib fiſh, and fi-nally the miaſmata of a burning climate...They returned to Cumana by the plainsof Cari and the miſſion of the Carib In-dians, a race of men very different fromany other, and probably, after the Patago-nians, the talleſt and moſt robuſt in theworld. After remaining ſome months at NewBarcelona and Cumana, the travellers ar-rived at the Havanna, after a tedious anddangerous navigation, the veſſel being inthe night on the point of ſtriking upon the Vibora rocks. Mr. H. remained threemonths in the iſland of Cuba, where heoccupied himſelf in aſcertaining the longi-tude of the Havanna, and in conſtructingſtoves on the ſugar plantations, which haveſince been pretty generally adopted. Theywere on the point of ſetting off for VeraCruz, meaning, by the way of Mexico and Acapulco, to go to the Philippine Iſlands,and from thence, if it was poſſible, byBombay and Aleppo, to Conſtantinople,when ſome falſe reports relative to Bau-din’s voyage alarmed them, and madethem change their plan. The gazettesheld out the idea that this navigator wouldproceed from France to Buenos Ayres, |Spaltenumbruch| and from thence by Cape Horn, for Chiliand the coaſt of Peru. Mr. Humboldt had promiſed to Mr. Baudin, and to theMuſeun of Paris, that wherever he mightbe, he would endeavor to join the expedi-tion, as ſoon as he ſhould know of its hav-ing been commenced. He flattered him-ſelf that his reſearches, and thoſe of hisfriend Bonpland, might be more uſeful toſcience, if united to the labors of the learn-ed men who would accompany Captain Baudin. Theſe conſiderations induced Mr. Hum-boldt to ſend his manuſcrips, for 1799 and1800, direct to Europe, and to freight aſmall ſchooner at Batabano, intending togo to Carthagena, and from thence, asquickly as poſſible, by the Iſthmus ofPanama, to the South Sea. He hoped tofind captain Baudin at Guayaquil, or atLima, and with him to viſit New Holland,and the iſlands of the Pacific Ocean, equal-ly intereſting in a moral point of view, asby the luxuriance of their vegetation. It appeared imprudent to expoſe themanuſcripts and collections already madeto the riſks of this propoſed navigation.....Theſe manuſcripts, the fate of which Mr.H. remained ignorant during three years,and until his arrival in Philadelphia, ar-rived ſafe, but one third part of the col-lection was loſt by ſhip-wreck. Fortunate-ly (except the inſects of the Oronoco andof the Rio Negro) they were only dupli-cates; but unhappy friar John Gonzales,monk of the order of St. Francis, thefriend to whom they were entruſted, per-iſhed with them. He was a young manfull of ardor, who had penetrated into thisunknown world of Spaniſh Guyana furtherthan any other European. Mr. Humboldt left Batabano in March,1801, and paſſed to the ſouth of the iſlandof Cuba, on which he determined manygeographical poſitions. The paſſage wasrendered very long by calms, and the cur-rents carried the little ſchooner too muchto the weſt, to the mouth of the Attracto. The veſſel put into the river Sinu, whichno botaniſt had ever before viſited, andthey had a very difficult paſſage up toCarthagena. The ſeaſon being too faradvanced for the South Sea navigation,the project of croſſing the iſthmus was a-bandoned; and animated with the deſireof being acquainted with the celebrated Mutis, and admiring his immenſely richcollections of objects of natural hiſtory, Mr.H. determined to paſs ſome weeks in thewoods of Turbaco, and aſcend (whichtook 40 days) the beautiful river of Ma-delane, of the courſe of which he ſketcheda chart. From Honda, our travellers aſcendedthrough foreſts of oaks, of melaſtoma andof chincona (the tree which affords the Pe-ruvian bark) to St. Fe de Bogota, capitalof the kingdom of New Grenada, ſituatedin a fine plain, elevated 1360 toiſes (of ſixFrench feet) above the level of the ſea.....The ſuperb collection of Mutis, the majeſ-tic cataract of the Tequedama (falls of 98toiſes height) the mines of Mariquita, St.Ana, and of Zinaquira, the natural bridgeof Scononza three ſtones thrown togetherin the manner of an arch, by an earth-quake, theſe curious objects ſtopped theprogreſs of Meſſrs. Humboldt and Bon-pland until the month of September, 1801. At this time, notwithſtanding the rainyſeaſon had commenced, they undertookthe journey to Quito, and paſſed the Andes of Quindin, which are ſnowy mountainscovered with wax palm trees, palmiers acire, with poſſe flores, paſſion flowers, ofthe growth of trees, ſtorax, and bombuſa,bamboo. They were during 13 days, o-bliged to paſs on foot through places dread-ſully ſwampy, and without any traces ofpopulation. From the village of Carthago, in thevalley of Cauca, they followed the courſeof the Choro, the country of Platina, whichwas there found in round pieces of baſalteand green rock, (grein ſtein of Werner )and foſſil wood. They paſs by Baga toPopayan, a biſhop’s ſee, and ſituated nearthe volcanoes of Sotara and Prurace, amoſt pictureſque ſituation, and enjoyingthe moſt delicious climate in the world,the thermometer of Reamur keeping con- |Spaltenumbruch| ſtantly from 16 to 18 (68 to 72 Fahr.)—They aſcended to the crater of the volca-no of Purace, whoſe mouth, in the middleof ſnow, throws out vapours of ſulphure-ous hydrogene; with continued and fright-ful rumbling. From Popayan they paſſed by the dan-gerous defiles of Almager, avoiding the in-fected and contagious valley of Patia, toPoſto, and from this town, even now ſitu-ated at the foot of a burning volcanoe, byTuqueras and the provinces of Paſtos, aflat portion of country, fertile in Europeangrain, but elevated more than 1500 to 1600toiſes above the towns of Ibarra and Quito. They arrived in January, 1802, at thisbeautiful capital, celebrated by the laborsof the illuſtrious Condamine, of Bouger, Godin, Don George Juan, Ulloa, and ſtillmore celebrated by the great amiability ofits inhabitants, and their happy turn forthe arts. They remained nearly a year in thekingdom of Quito; the height of its ſnowcapped mountains, its terrible earthquakes,that of February 7, 1797, ſwallowed up42,000 inhabitants, in a few ſeconds, itsfertility, and the manners of its inhabi-tants, combine to render it the moſt inter-eſting ſpot in the univerſe. After threevain attempts, they twice ſucceeded in aſ-cending to the crater of the volcano ofPichincha, taking with them electrometers,barometers and hydrometers. Condamine could only ſtop here a few minutes, andthat without inſtruments. In his time, thisimmenſe crater was cold and filled withſnow. Our travellers found it inflamed;diſtreſſing information for the town ofQuito, which is diſtant from it only 5000to 6000 toiſes. They made ſeparate viſits to the ſnowyand porphyritic mountains of Antiſana,Cotopaxi, Tungaraque and Chimborazo,the laſt the higheſt point of our globe....They ſtudied the geological part of the Cor-dillera of the Andes, on which ſubject no-thing has been publiſhed in Europe, mine-ralogy, if the expreſſion may be uſed, hav-ing been created ſince the time of Conda-mine. The geodeſical meaſurements prov-ed that ſome mountains, particularly thevolcano of Tungaraque, has conſiderablylowered ſince 1750, which reſult agreeswith the obſervations made to them by theinhabitants. During the whole of this part of thejourney, they were accompanied by Mr. Charles Montufar, ſon of the marquis ofSelva-alegre, of Quito a perſon zealous forthe progreſs of ſcience, and who is, at hisown expenſe, rebuilding the pyramids ofSaraqui, the extremity of the celebratedbaſes of the triangles of the Spaniſh andFrench academicians. This intereſtingyoung man having followed Mr. Hum-boldt in the remainder of his journey thro’Peru and the kingdom of New Spain, isnow on his paſſage with him to Europe. Circumſtances were ſo favorable to theefforts of the three travellers, that at An-tiſana they aſcended 2200 French feet,and at Chimborazo, on June 22, 1802,nearly 3200 feet higher than Condamine was able to carry his inſtruments. Theyaſcended to 3036 toiſes elevation abovethe level of the ſea, the blood ſtarting fromtheir eyes, lips and gums. An opening of80 toiſes deep, and very wide, preventedthem from reaching the top, from whichthey were only diſtant 134 toiſes. It was at Quito that Mr. Humboldt re-ceived a letter from the National Inſtituteof France, informing him that Captain Baudin had proceeded by the Cape ofGood Hope, and that there was no longerany hope of joining him. After having examined the country o-verturned by the earthquake of Riobamba,in 1797, they paſſed by the Andes of Aſ-ſuay to Cuenza. The deſire of compar-ing the Chinchonac diſcovered by Mr. Mu-tis, at Santa Fe de Bogota, and with thoſeof Popayan, and the cuſpa and cuſpare ofNew Andaluſia, of the river Caroni, na-med falſely cortex Auguſtura, with theChinconas of Loxa and Peru, they prefer-red deviating from the beaten track fromCuenza to Lima: but they paſſed withimmenſe difficulties in the carriage of theirinſtruments and collections, by the foreſt |2| |Spaltenumbruch| (paramo) of Saragura to Laxa, and fromthence to the province of Jaen de Braca-meros. They had to croſs thirty-five times,two days, the river Guancabomba, ſo dan-gerous for its ſudden freſhes. They ſawthe ruins of the ſuperb Ynga road com-parable to the fineſt roads in France, andwhich went upon the ridge of the Andes from Cuſco to the Aſſuay, accomodatedwith fountains and taverns. They deſcended the river Chamnya,which led them into that of the Amazones,and they navigated this laſt river down tothe cataracts of Tomeperda, one of themoſt fertile, but one of the hotteſt climatesof the habitable globe. From the Ama-zone river they returned to the ſouth eaſtby the Cordillera of the Andes to Montar,where they found they had paſſed the magnetic equator, the inclination being0, although at ſeven degrees of ſouth lati-tude. They viſited the mines of Hual-guayœ, where native ſilver is found at theheight of 2000 toiſes. Some of the veinsof theſe mines contain petrified ſhells, andwhich, with thoſe of Paſco and Huantaja- yo, are actually the richeſt of Peru. FromCaxamarca they deſcended to Truxillo, inthe neighborhood of which are found theruins of the immenſe Peruvian city, Man-ſiche. It was on this weſtern deſcent of the Andes that the three voyagers, for the firſttime had the pleaſure of ſeeing the PacificOcean. They followed its barren ſides,formerly watered by the canals of theYngas at Santa Guerma, and Lima. Theyremained ſome months in this intereſtingcapital of Peru, of which the inhabitantsare diſtinguiſhed by the vivacity of theirgenius, and the liberality of their Ideas. Mr. Humboldt had the good fortuneto obſerve the end of the paſſages of Mer-cury over the ſun’s diſk, in the port ofCalloa. He was aſtoniſhed to find, at ſucha diſtance from Europe, the moſt recentproductions in chemiſtry, mathematics,and medicine; and he found great activi-ty of mind in the inhabitants, who, in aclimate where it never either rains or thun-ders, have been falſely accuſed of indo-lence. From Lima our travellers paſſed by ſeato Guayaquil, ſituated on the brink of ariver, where the growth of the palm treeis beautiful beyond deſcription. Theyevery moment heard the rumbling of thevolcano of Cotopaxi, which made an ex-ploſion on the 6th of January, 1803.They immediately ſet off to viſit it a ſecondtime, when the unexpected intelligence ofthe ſpeedy departure of the frigate Ata-lanta determined them to return, after be-ing ſeven days expoſed to the dreadful at-tacks of the muſquitoes of Babaoya andUjibar. They had a fortunate paſſage, by the Pacific Ocean, to Acapulco, the weſternport of the kingdom of New Spain famousfor the beauty of its harbour, which ap-pears to have been formed by earthquakes,for the miſery of its inhabitants, and forits climate, which is equally hot and un-healthy. Mr. Humboldt had originally the in-tention to remain only a few months inMexico, and to haſten his return to Eu-rope; his voyage had already been toomuch protracted, his inſtruments, parti-cularly the chronometers, began to be outof order, and every effort that he made tohave new ones ſent to him proved of no a-vail; add to this conſideration, that theprogreſs of ſcience is ſo rapid in Europe,that, in a journey that laſt four or fiveyears, great riſk is run of contemplatingthe different phenomena under aſpects,which are no longer intereſting at the mo-ment of publiſhing the reſult of your la-bours. Mr. Humboldt hoped to be inFrance in Auguſt or September 1803, butthe attractions of a country, ſo beautifuland ſo varied, as is that of the kingdom ofNew Spain, the great hoſpitality of its in-habitants, and the fear of the yellow fever* ſo fatal, from June to November, for thoſewho come from the mountainous parts ofthe country, led him to ſtay a year in thiskingdom. Our traveller aſcended from Acapulco,to Taſco, celebrated for its mines, as inter-eſting as they are ancient. They riſe, byſmall degrees, from the ardent valley ofMeſcala and Papagayo, where the ther-mometer of Reaumur ſtands in the ſhade,conſtantly from 28 to 31 (95 to 101 Fah.)in a region 6 or 700 toiſes above the levelof the ſea, where you find the oaks, thepines, and the fougere (fern) as large astrees, and where the European grains arecultivated. They paſſed by Taſco, byCuerna Vaca, to the capital of Mexico....This city of 150,000 inhabitants, is placedupon the ancient ſite of Texochtitlan, be-tween the lakes Tezcuco and Xochimilcalakes which have leſſened ſomewhat ſincethe Spaniards have opened the canal ofHuchentoca, in ſight of two ſnow-toppedmountains, of which one, Popocatepec, is |Spaltenumbruch| even now an active volcano, ſurrounded bya great number of walks, ſhaded with trees,and by Indian villages. This capital of Mexico, ſituated 1160toiſes above the level of the ſea, in a mildand temperate climate may doubtleſs becompared to ſome of the fineſt towns inEurope. Great ſcientific eſtabliſhments,ſuch as the Academy of Painting, Sculp-ture, and Engraving, the College of Mines,(owing to the liberality of the Companyof Miners of Mexico), and the BotanicGarden, are inſtitutions which do honorto the government which has created them. After remaining ſome months in thevalley of Mexico, and after fixing the lon-gitude of the capital, which had been laiddown by an error of nearly two degrees,our travellers viſited the mines of Moranand Real del Monte, and the Cerro ofOyamel, where the ancient Mexicans hadthe manufactory of knives made of theobſidian ſtone. They ſoon after paſſed byQueretaro and Salamanca to Guanaxoato,a town of fifty thouſand inhabitants, andcelebrated for its mines, more rich thanthoſe of Potoſi have ever been. The mineof the count of Valenciana, which is 1840French feet perpendicular depth, is thedeepeſt and richeſt mine of the univerſe.This mine alone gives to its proprietorsnearly ſix hundred thouſand dollars annu-al and conſtant profit. From Guanaxoato they returned by thevalley of St. Jago to Valladolid, in the an-cient kingdom of Michuacan, one of themoſt fertile and charming provinces of thekingdom. They deſcended from Paſcua-ro towards the coaſt of the Pacific Oceanto the plains of Serullo, where, in 1759,in one night, a volcano aroſe from the lev-el, ſurrounded by two thouſand ſmallmouths from whence ſmoke ſtill continuesto iſſue. They arrived almoſt to the bot-tom of the crater of the great volcano ofSerullo of which they analized the air, andfound it ſtrongly impregnated with car-bonic acid.—They returned to Mexico bythe valley of Toſuca, and viſited the vol-cano, to the higheſt point of which theyaſcended, 14,400 French feet above thelevel of the ſea. In the months of January and February,1804, they purſued their reſearches, on theeaſtern deſcent of the Cordilleras theymeaſured the mountains Novados de la Puebla, Popocatyce, Izazihutle, the greatpeak of Grizaba, and the Cofre de Petrote;upon the top of the laſt Mr. Humboldt obſerved the meridian height of the ſun.In fine, after ſome reſidence at Xalappa,they embarked at Vera Cruz, for the Ha-vannah. They reſumed the collectionsthey had left there in 1801, and by theway of Philadelphia, embarked for France;in July, 1804, after ſix years abſence andlabors. A collection of 6000 differentſpecies of plants (of which a great partare new) and numerous mineralogical, aſ-tronomical, chemical, and moral obſerva-tions, have been the reſult of this expedi-tion. Mr. Humboldt gives higheſt praiſesto the liberal protection granted to his re-ſearches by the Spaniſh government. Baron Humboldt was born in Pruſſia,on the 14th of September, 1769.

* Vomito prieto.