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Alexander von Humboldt: „Baron Humboldt“, in: ders., Sämtliche Schriften digital, herausgegeben von Oliver Lubrich und Thomas Nehrlich, Universität Bern 2021. URL: <https://humboldt.unibe.ch/text/1804-Baron_Humboldt-03-neu> [abgerufen am 22.06.2024].

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Titel Baron Humboldt
Jahr 1804
Ort New York City, New York
Nachweis
in: The Daily Advertiser 20:5591 (28. August 1804), S. [2]; 20:5596 (1. September 1804), S.[2].
Sprache Englisch
Typografischer Befund Antiqua (mit lang-s); Spaltensatz; Auszeichnung: Kursivierung, Kapitälchen.
Identifikation
Textnummer Druckausgabe: II.23
Dateiname: 1804-Baron_Humboldt-03-neu
Statistiken
Seitenanzahl: 2
Spaltenanzahl: 2
Zeichenanzahl: 23545

Weitere Fassungen
Baron Humboldt (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1804, Englisch)
Notice d’un voyage aux tropiques, exécuté par MM. Humboldt et Bonpland, en 1799, 1800, 1801, 1802, 1803 et 1804. Par J.-C. Delamétherie (Paris, 1804, Französisch)
Baron Humboldt (New York City, New York, 1804, Englisch)
Baron Humboldt (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1804, Englisch)
Baron Humboldt (New York City, New York, 1804, Englisch)
Baron Humboldt (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1804, Englisch)
Baron Humboldt (Charleston, South Carolina, 1804, Englisch)
Baron Humboldt (Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, 1804, Englisch)
Baron Humboldt (Washington, District of Columbia, 1804, Englisch)
Travels of Baron Humboldt (Kingston, New York, 1804, Englisch)
Baron Humboldt (Washington, District of Columbia, 1804, Englisch)
Baron Humboldt (Amherst, New Hampshire, 1804, Englisch)
Baron Humboldt (Richmond, Virginia, 1804, Englisch)
Baron Humboldt (New Bedford, Massachusetts, 1804, Englisch)
Baron Humboldt (Dover, New Hampshire, 1804, Englisch)
Auszug aus Delametheriés vorläufiger Nachricht von der durch die Herren v. Humboldt und Bonpland in den Jahren 1799, 1800, 1801, 1802, 1803 und 1804 nach den Wendekreisen unternommenen Reise (Wien, 1804, Deutsch)
Reise der Herren von Humboldt und Bonpland nach den Wendekreisen In den Jahren 1799 bis 1804. Eine gedrängte Uebersicht des Auszugs ihrer Memoiren v. J. C. Delametherie. Nach dem Französischen übertragen von Schirges Dr. (Hannover, 1805, Deutsch)
J. C. Delametherie’s vorläufige Nachricht von der durch die Herren v. Humboldt und Bonpland in den Jahren 1799, 1800, 1801, 1802, 1803 und 1804 nach den Wendekreisen unternommenen Reise (Weimar, 1805, Deutsch)
Short Account of the Travels between the Tropics, by Messrs. Humboldt and Bonpland, in 1799, 1800, 1801, 1802, 1803, and 1804. By J. C. Delametherie (London, 1805, Englisch)
J. C. Delametherie’s vorläufige Nachricht von der durch die Herren von Humboldt und Bonpland in den Jahren 1799, 1800, 1801, 1802, 1803 und 1804 nach den Wendekreisen unternommenen Reise (Salzburg, 1805, Deutsch)
Account of the Travels between the Tropics of Messrs. Humboldt and Bonpland, in 1799, 1800, 1801, 1802, 1803, and 1804. By J. C. Delamétherie (London, 1805, Englisch)
Travels in South America (Edinburgh, 1805, Englisch)
Voyage de Humboldt et Bonpland en Amérique, tiré du magasin littéraire de Philadelphie, publié en juillet 1804 (Paris, 1807, Französisch)
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BARON HUMBOLDT.

The following abſtract of the AmericanTravels of the celebrated Baron Humboldt andhis companion Bonpland, has been drawn upfrom notes which, the former has kindly fur-niſhed, and will ſuperſede the many very incor-rect, accounts hitherto publiſhed relative to thisintereſting object. Baron Humboldt, having travelled from theyear 1790, as a naturaliſt, through Germany,Poland, France, Switzerland, and throughparts of England, Italy, Hungary, and Spain,came to Parts in 1798, when he received an in-vitation, from the directors of the national mu-ſeum to accompany captain Baudin in hisvoyage round the world. Citizen AlexanderAime Gourjon Bonpland, a native of Rochelle,and brought up in the Paris muſeum, was alſoto have accompanied them; when on the pointof departing, the whole plan was ſuſpended un-til a more favourable opportunity, owing to there-commencement of the war with Auſtria, andthe conſequent want of funds. Mr. Humboldt, who, from 1792, had con-ceived the plan of travelling through India athis own expenſe, with a view of adding to theknowledge of the ſciences connected with na-tural hiſtory, then reſolved to follow the learn-ed men, who had gone on the expedition to Egypt. His plan was to go to Algiers in theSwediſh frigate which carried the conſul Skol-debrandt, to follow the caravan which goes from Algiers to Mecca, going through Egypt to Arabia, and thence by the Perſian gulph to theEngliſh Eaſt-India eſtabliſhments. The warwhich unexpectedly broke out in October,1798, between France and the Barbary pow-ers, and the troubles in the Eaſt, prevented Mr. Humboldt from embarking at Marſeilles, wherehe had been fruitleßly two months waiting toproceed. Impatient at this delay, and contin-uing firm in his determination to go to Egypt,he went to Spain, hoping to paß more readilyunder the Spaniſh flag from Carthagena to Al-giers and Tunis. He took with him the largecollection of philoſophical, chemical, and aſtro-nomical inſtruments, which he had purchaſedin England and France. From a happy concurrence of circumſtances,he obtained, in February, 1789, from the courtof Madrid, a permiſſion to viſit the Spaniſh co-lonies of the two Americas, a permiſſion whichwas granted with a liberality and frankneß,which was honourable to the government andto a philoſophic age. After a reſidence of ſomemonths at the Spaniſh court, during which timethe king ſhowed a ſtrong perſonal intereſt inthe plan, Mr. Humboldt, in June, 1799, leftEurope, accompanied by Mr. Bonpland, who,to a profound knowledge in botany and zoolo-gy, added an indefatigable zeal. It is withthis friend that Mr. Humboldt has accompliſh-ed, at his own expenſe, his travels in the twohemiſpheres, by land and ſea, probably the moſtextenſive which any individual has ever under-taken. Theſe two travellers left Corunna in the Spa-niſh ſhip Pizarro, for the Canary Iſlands, wherethey aſcended to the crater of the Peak ofTeyde, and made experiments on the analyſis ofthe air. In July they arrived at the port ofOmana, in South America. In 1799, 1800,they viſited the coaſt of Paria, the miſſions ofthe Chaymas Indians, the province of New An-daluſia (a country which had been rent by themoſt dreadful earthquakes, the hotteſt, and yetthe moſt healthy, in the world,) of New Barce-lona, of Venezuela; and Spaniſh Guayana.—InJanuary 1800 they left Caraccas to viſit thebeautiful vallies of Aagca, where the greatlake of Valencia recals to mind the views ofthe lake of Geneva, embelliſhed by the majeſtyof the vegetation of the tropics. From PortoCabello they croſſed, to the ſouth, the immenſeplains of Caloboza, of Apure, and of theOronoco, alſo los Llanos, a deſert ſimilar tothoſe of Africa, where in the ſhade (by thereverberation of heat) the thermometer of Reau-mur roſe to 35 and 37 (111 to 115 F.) de-grees. The level of the country for 2000ſquare leagues does not differ 5 inches. Theſand every where repreſents the horizon of theſea, without vegetation; and its dry boſomhides the crocodiles, and the torpid boa (a ſpe-cies of ſerpent.) The travelling here, as in all Spaniſh America, except Mexico, is performedon horſeback. They paſſed whole days with-out ſeeing a palm-tree or the veſtige of a hu-man dwelling. At St. Fernando de Apure,in the provinces of Varinas, Meſſrs. Humboldt and Bonpland began that fatiguing navi-gation of nearly 1000 marine leagues, executedin canoes, making a chart of the country bythe aſſiſtance of chronometers, the ſatellites ofJupiter, and the lunar diſtances. They de-ſcended the river Apure, which empties itſelfinto the Oronoco, in 7 degrees of latitude.—They aſcended the laſt river (paſſing the ce-lebrated cataracts of Mapure and Atures) tothe mouth of the Guaviare. From thencethey aſcended the ſmall rivers of Tabapa, Jua-mini, and Tenie. From the miſſion of Saritathey croſſed by land to the ſources of the fa-mous Rio Negro, which Condamine ſaw, whereit joins the Amazon, and which he calls a ſeaof freſh water. About 30 Indians carried thecanoes through woods of Mami Lecy this andLaurus Cinamomoides to the cano (or creek)of Pemichin. It was by this ſmall ſtream thatthe travellers entered the Rio Negro, or BlackRiver, which they deſcended to St. Carlos,which has been erroneouſly ſuppoſed to beplaced under the equator, or juſt at the frontiersof Great Para, in the government of Breſil. Acanal from Tenie to Pemichin, which from thelevel nature of the ground is very practicable,would preſent a fine internal communication be-tween the Para and the province of Carracas,a communication infinitely ſhorter than that ofCaſſiquiare. From the fortreß of St. Carloson the Rio Negro, Mr. H. went north up thatriver and the Caſſiquiare to the Oronoco, andon this river to the volcano Daida or the miſſionof the Eſmeralda, near the ſources of the Oro-noco: the Indians Guaicas (or race of menalmoſt pigmies, very white and very warlike)render fruitleß any attempts to reach the ſour-ces themſelves. From the Eſmeralda Meſſrs. H. and B. wentdown the Oronoco, when the waters roſe, to-wards its mouths at St. Thomas de la Guay-ana, or the Angoſtura. It was during thislong navigation that they were in a continuedſtate of ſuffering, from want of nouriſhment,and ſhelter from the night rains, from living inthe woods, from the moſquetoes, and an infi-nite variety of ſtinging inſects, and from theimpoſſibility of bathing, owing to the fierceneßof the crocodile and the little carib fiſth, and fi-nally the miaſmata of a burning climate. Theyreturned to Cumana by the plains of Cari andthe miſſion of the Carib Indians a race of menvery different from any other, and probableafter the Patagonians, the tallest and most ro-buſt in the world. After remaining ſome months at, New Bar-celona and Cumana, the travellers arrived atthe Havanna, after a tedious and dangerous Na-vigation, the veſſel being in the night on thepoint of ſtriking upon the Vibora rocks. Mr.H. remained three months in the iſland ofCuba, where he occupied himſelf in aſcertainingthe longitude of the Havanna, and in conſtruct-ing ſtoves on the ſugar plantations, which haveſince been pretty generally adopted. Theywere on the point of ſetting off for Vera Cruz,meaning, by the way of Mexico and Acapulco,to go to the Philippine Iſlands, and from thenceif it was poſſible, by Bombay and Aleppo, toConſtantinople, when ſome falſe reports relativeto Baudin’s voyage alarmed them, and madethem change their plan. The gazettes heldout the idea that this navigator would proceedfrom France to Buenos Ayres, and from thence,by Cape Horn, for Chili and the coaſt of Pe-ru. Mr. Humboldt had promiſed to Mr. Bau-din and to the Muſeum of Paris, that where-ver he might be, he would endeavour to jointhe expedition, as ſoon as he ſhould know ofits having been commenced. He flatteredhimſelf that his reſearches, and thoſe of hisfriend Bonpland, might be more uſeful to ſci-ence, if united to the labours of the learnedmen who would accompany captain Baudin. Theſe conſiderations induced Mr. Humboldt to ſend his manuſcripts, for 1799 and 1800direct to Europe, and to freight a ſmallſchooner at Bantabano, intending to go to Car-thagena, and from thence, as quickly as poſſi-ble, by the Iſthmus of Panama, to the SouthSea. He hoped to find captain Baudin atGuayaquil, or at Lima, and with him to viſitNew Holland, and the Iſlands of the PacificOcean, equally intereſting in a moral point ofview, as by the luxuriance of their vegetation. It appeared imprudent to expoſe the manu-ſcripts and collections already made to the riſksof this propoſed navigation. Theſe manuſcriptsof the fate of which Mr. H. remained ignorantduring three years, and until his arrival in Phi-ladelphia, arrived ſafe, but one third part of thecollection was loſt by ſhipwreck. Fortunatelyexcept the inſects of the Oronoco and Rio Ne-gro they were only duplicates; but unhappilyfriar John Gonzales, monk of the order of St. Francis, the friend to whom they were entruſt-ed, periſhed with them. He was a young manfull of ardour, who had penetrated into thisunknown world of Spaniſh Guayana furtherthan any other European. Mr. Humboldt left Batabano in March 1801,and paſſed to the ſouth of the Iſland of Cuba,on which he determined many geographicalpoſitions. The paſſage was rendered very longby calms, and the currents carried the littleſchooner too much to the weſt, to the mouthsof the Attracto. The veſſel put into the riverSinu, where no botaniſt had ever before viſitedand they had a very difficult paſſage up to Car-thagena. The ſeaſon being too far advancedfor the South Sea navigation, the project ofcroſſing the iſthmus was abandoned; and ani-mated by the deſire of being acquainted withthe celebrated Mutis, and admiring his im-menſely rich collections of objects of naturalhiſtory, Mr. H. determined to paß ſome weeksin the woods of Turbaco, and to aſcend (whichtook forty days) the beautiful river of Mada-laine, of the ſource of which he has ſketched achart. From Honda, our travellers proceeded thro’foreſts of oaks, of melaſlomo, and of cinchona, (the tree which affords the Peruvian bark,) toSt. Fe de Bogota, capital of the kingdom ofNew Grenada, ſituated in a fine plain, elevated1360 toiſes (of fix French feet) above the levelof the ſea. The ſuperb collections of Mutis,the majeſtic cataract of the Tequendama (fallsof 98 toiſes height) the mines of Mariquits,St. Ana, and of Tipaquira, the natural bridgeof Scononza, (three ſtones thrown together inthe manner of an arch, by an earthquake,)theſe curious objects ſtopped the progreß ofMeſſrs. Humboldt and Bonpland until themonth of September 1801. At this time, notwithſtanding the rainy ſea-ſon had commenced, they undertook the jour-ney to Quito, and paſſed the Andes of Quin-din, which are ſnowy mountains covered withwax palm-trees, (palmers a cire,) with paſſeflores, (paſſion flower) of the growth of trees,ſtorax, and bambuſa (bamboo.) They were,during 13 days, obliged to paß on foot throughplaces dreadfully ſwampy, and without anytraces of population. (to be continued.)
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BARON HUMBOLDT. (Concluded from Tueſday, laſt.)

From the village of Carthago, in the valleyof Cauca, they followed the courſe of the cho-co, the country of Palatina, which was therefound in round pieces of baſalte and greenrock (grein ſtein of Werner,) and foſſil wood.They paß by Buga to Popayan, a biſhip’s ſee,and ſituated near the volcanoes of Sotara andPurace, a moſt pictureſque ſituation, and en-joying the moſt delicious climate in the world,the thermometer of Reamur keeping conſtant-ly at 16 to 18 (68 to 72 Fahr.) They aſ-cended to the crater of the volcano of Purace,whoſe mouth, in the middle of ſnow, throwsout vapours of ſulphureous hydrogene, withcontinued and frightful rumbling. From Popayan they paſſed by the dangerousdefiles of Almager, avoiding the infected andcontagious valley of Patia, to Poſto, and fromthis town, even now ſituated at the foot of aburning volcano, by Tuqueras and the provinceof Paſtos, a flat portion of country, fertile inEuropean grain, but elevated more than 1500to 1600 toiſes above the towns of Ibarra andQuito. They arrived, in January, 1802, at this beau-tiful capital, celebrated by the labours of theilluſtrious Condamine, of Bouger, Godin, Dr. George Juan, and Ulloa, and ſtill more cele-brated by the great amiability of its inhabitants,and their happy turn for the arts. They remained nearly a year in the king-dom of Quito: the height of its ſnow-cappedmountains, its terrible earthquakes (that ofFebruary 7, 1797, ſwallowed up 42,000 inha-bitants, in a few ſeconds,) its fertility, and themanners of its inhabitants, combined to renderit the moſt intereſting ſpot in the univerſe.—After three vain attempts, they twice ſucceed-ed in aſcending to the crater of the volcano ofPichincha, taking with them electrometers, ba-rometers, and hygrometers. Condamine couldonly ſtop here a few minutes, and that withoutinſtruments. In his time, this immenſe craterwas cold and filled with ſnow. Our travellersfound it inflamed; diſtreſſing information forthe town of Quito, which is diſtant from itonly 5000 to 6000 toiſes. They made ſeperate viſits to the ſnowy andporphyritic mountains of Antiſana, Cotopaxi,Tungarague, and Chimborazo, the laſt thehigheſt point of our globe. They ſtudied thegeological part of the Cordillera of the Andes,on which ſubject nothing has been publiſhed inEurope, mineralogy (if the expreſſion may beuſed) having been created, as it were, ſince thetime of Condamine. The geodeſical meaſure-ments proved that ſome mountains, particular-ly the volcano of Tungarague, has conſidera-bly lowered ſince 1750, which reſult agreeswith the obſervations made to them by the in-habitants. During the whole of this part of the journey,they were accompanied by Mr. Charles Mon-tutar, ſon of the marquis of Selva-alegre, ofQuito, a perſon zealous for the progreſs ofſcience, and who is, at his own expenſe, rebuild-ing the pyramids of Saraqui, the extremity ofthe celebrated baſes of the triangles of theSpaniſh and French academicians. This inter-eſting young man having followed Mr. Hum-boldt in the remainder of his journey throughPeru and the kingdom of New Spain, is nowon his paſſage with him to Europe. Circumſtances were ſo favourable to the ef-forts of the three travellers, that at Antiſana they aſcended 2200 French feet, and at Chim-borazo, on June 22, 1802, nearly 3200 feethigher than Condamine was able to carry hisinſtruments. They aſcended to 3036 toiſes ele-vation above the level of the ſea, the bloodſtarting from their eyes, lips, and gums. Anopening, of 80, toiſes deep, and very wide, pre-vented them from reaching the top, from whichthey were only diſtant 134 toiſes. It was at Quito that Mr. Humboldt receiv-ed a letter from the National Inſtitute of France,informing him, that captain Baudin had pro-ceeded by the Cape of Good Hope, and thatthere was no longer any hope of joining him. After having examined the country overturn-ed by the earthquake of Riobamba, in 1797,they paſſed by the Andes of Aſſuay to Cu-enza. The deſire of comparing the barks(cinchona) diſcovered by Mr. Mutis, at SantaFe de Bagota, and with thoſe of Popayan, andthe cuſpa and cuſpare of New Andaluſia, andof the river Caroni (named falſely Cortex Au-guſtura) with the cinchona, (barks) of Loxaand Peru, they preferred deviating from thebeaten track from Cuenza to Lima; but theypaſſed with immenſe difficulties in the carriagetheir inſtruments and collections, by the fo-reſt (paramo) of Saragura to Loxa, andfrom thence to the province of Saen de Bra-camoros. They had to croß thirty-fivetimes, in two days, the river Guancabamba, ſodangerous for its ſudden freſhes. They ſawthe ruins of the ſuperb Ynga road, comparableto the fineſt roads in France, and which wentupon the ridge of the Andes from Cuſco to the Aſſuay, accommodated with fountains and ta-verns. They deſcended the river Chamaya, whichled them into that of the Amazones, and theynavigated this laſt river down to the cataractsof Tomeperda, one of the moſt fertile, but oneof the hotteſt, climates of the habitable globe.From the Amazone river they returned to theſouth eaſt by the Cordilleras of the Andes toMontar, where they found they had paſſed themagnetic equator, the inclination being 0, al-though at ſeven degrees of ſouth latitude.They viſited the mines of Hualgayoc, wherenative ſilver is found at the height of 2000toiſes. Some of the veins of theſe mines con-tain petrified thells, and which, with thoſe ofPaſco and Huantajayo, are actually the richeſtof Peru. From Caxamarca they deſcended toTruxillo, in the neighbourhood of which arefound the ruins of the immenſe Peruvian city,Manſiche. It was on this weſtern deſcent of the Andes that the three voyagers, for the firſt time, hadthe pleaſure of ſeeing the Pacific Ocean. Theyfollowed its barren ſides, formerly watered bythe canals of the Yngas at Santa, Guerma, andLima. They remained ſome months in thisintereſting capital of Peru, of which the inha-bitants are diſtinguiſhed by the vivacity of theirgenius and the liberality of their ideas. Mr. Humboldt had the good fortune to ob-ſerve the end of the paſſage of Mercury overthe ſun’s diſk, in the port of Callao. He wasaſtoniſhed to find, at ſuch a diſtance from Eu-rope, the moſt recent productions in chemiſtry,mathematics, and medicine; and he found great |Spaltenumbruch| activity of mind in the inhabitants, who, in aclimate where it never either rains or thunders,have been falſely accuſed of indolence. From Lima our travellers paſſed by ſea toGuayaquil, ſituated on the brink of a riverwhere the growth of the palm-tree is beautifulbeyond deſcription. They every moment heardthe rumbling of the vulcano of Cotopaxi, whichmade an alarming exploſion on the 6th Janua-ry, 1803. They immediately ſet off to viſit ita ſecond time, when the unexpected intelligenceof the ſpeedy departure of the frigate Atalantadetermined them to return, after being ſevendays expoſed to the dreadful attacks of themuſquitoes of Babaoya and Ujibar. They had a fortunate paſſage, by the Paci-fic Ocean, to Acapulco, the weſtern port of thekingdom of New Spain, famous for the beautyof its harbour, which appears to have beenformed by earthquakes, for the miſery of itsinhabitants, and for its climate, which is equal-ly hot and unhealthy. Mr. Humboldt had originally the intentionto remain only a few months in Mexico, andto haſten his return to Europe; his voyagehad already been too much protracted, his in-ſtruments, particularly the chronometers, beganto be out of order, and every effort that hemade to have new ones ſent to him proved ofno avail; add to this conſideration, that theprogreſs of ſcience is ſo rapid in Europe, that,in a journey that laſts four or five years, greatriſk is run of contemplating the different phe-nomena under aſpects, which are no longer in-tereſting at the moment of publiſhing the re-ſult of your labours. Mr. Humboldt hopedto be in France in Auguſt or September, 1803but the attractions of a county, ſo beautifuland ſo varied, as is that of the kingdom ofNew Spain, the great hoſpitality of its inhabi-tants, and the fear of the yellow fever, fatal,from June to November, for thoſe who comefrom the mountainous parts of the country,led him to ſtay a year in this kingdom. Our travellers aſcended from Acapulco toTaſco, celebrated for its mines, as intereſtingas they are ancient. They riſe, by ſmall de-grees, from the ardent valley of Meſcala andPapagayo, where the thermometer of Reau-mur ſtands, in the ſhade, conſtantly from 28 to31 (95 to 101 Fah.) in a region 6 or 700toiſes above the level of the ſea, where you findthe oaks, the pines, and the fougere (fern) aslarge as trees, and where the European grainsare cultivated. They paſſed by Taſco, by Cu-erna Vacca, to the capital of Mexico. Thiscity, of 150,000 inhabitants, is placed uponthe ancient ſite, of Texochtitlan, between thelakes of Tezcuco and Xochimilco, lakes whichhave leſſened ſomewhat ſince the Spaniardshave opened the canal of Hacheutoca, in ſightof two ſnow-topped mountains, of which out,Hopocatepec, is even now an active volcano,ſurrounded by a great number of walks, ſhadedwith trees, and by Indian villages. This capital of Mexico, ſituated 1160 toiſes above the ſea, in a mild and temperate climate,may doubtleſs be compared to ſome of thefineſt towns in Europe. Great ſcientific eſta-blithments, ſuch the Academy of Painting,Sculpture and Engraving, the College of Mines,(owing to the liberality of the Company ofMiners of Mexico,) and the Botanic Garden,are inſtitutions which do honour to the govern-ment which has created them. After remaining ſome months in the valleyof Mexico, and after fixing the longitude ofthe capital, which had been laid down with anerror of nearly two degrees, our travellers viſi-ted the mines of Moran and Real del Monte,and the Cerro of Oyamel, where the ancientMexicans had the manufactory of knives madeof the obſidian ſtone. They ſoon after paſſedby Queretaro and Salamanca to Guanaxoatoa town of fifty thouſand inhabitants, and cele-brated for its mines, more rich than thoſe ofPotoſi have ever been. The mine of the countof Valenciana, which is 1840 French feet per-pendicular depth, is the deepeſt and richeſtmine of the univerſe. This mine alone givesto its proprietor nearly ſix hundred thouſanddollars annual and conſtant profit. From Guanaxoato they returned by the val-ley of St. Jago to Valladolid, in the ancientkingdom of Michuacan, one the moſt fertileand charming provinces of the kingdom. Theydeſcended from Paſcuaro towards the coaſt ofthe Pacific Ocean to the plains of Serullo,where, in 1759, in one night, a volcano aroſefrom the level, ſurrounded by two thouſand ſmall mouths, from whence ſmoke ſtill conti-nues to iſſue. They arrived almoſt to the bot-tom of the crater of the great volcano of Se-rullo, of which they analyſed the air, and foundit ſtrongly impregnated with carbonic acid.They returned to Mexico by the valley of Te-luca, and viſited the volcano, to the higheſtpoint of which they aſcended, 14,400 Frenchfeet above the level of the ſea. In the months of January and February,1804, they purſued their reſearches on theeaſtern deſcent of the Cordilleras, they mea-ſured the mountains Morados, de la Puebla,Popocatyce, Izazihuatli, the great peak ofOrizaba, and the Cofre de Perote; upon thetop of this laſt Mr. Humboldt obſerved themeridian height of the ſun. In fine, afterſome reſidence at Xalappa, they embarked atVera Cruz for the Havanna. They reſumedthe collections they had left there in 1801, andby the way of Philadelphia, embarked forFrance in July, 1804, after ſix years of abſenceand labours. A collection of 6000 differentſpecies of plants (of which a great part arenew) and numerous mineralogical, aſtronomi-cal, chemical, and moral obſervations, havebeen the reſult of this expedition. Mr. Hum-boldt gives the higheſt praiſes to the liberalprotection granted to his reſearches by the Spa-niſh government. Baron Humboldt was born in Pruſſia, on the14th of September, 1769.